Aphasie optique. Références et abstracts.

 Début 2005, j’ai dû faire une recherche bibliographique au sujet de l’aphasie optique (optic aphasia) ou agnosie d’accès sémantique (semantic access agnosia). J’ai cherché dans des sites comme PubMed, Science Direct,

IngentaConnect … Voir par exemple http://www.aimt67.org/moteurs.htm et, lorsqu’ils étaient disponibles, j’ai copié/collé les abstracts.
Lorsque j’ai trouvé des articles complets sur le web, j’ai aussi noté la référence.
Il ne s’agit certes pas d’une liste exhaustive.

Comme ceci pourrait éventuellement être utile, aujourd’hui ou dans quelques mois, à quelqu’un d’autre que moi, je vous transmets cela.

Si vous le souhaitez, pensez au fait que le net offre de nombreux outils de traduction approximative.


Vous pouvez évidemment compléter cette liste en laissant un « commentaire ».


1. J. Lindeboom. Semantic processing in optic aphasia. CONFERENCE. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, Volume 84, Issue 2, 1982, Page 138

2. Optic aphasia: a process of interaction between vision and language. Beauvois MF. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1982 Jun 25;298(1089):35-47.

A neurological syndrome, called in the literature ether optic aphasia or visual anomia, is defined in principle as the inability to name visually presented objects, together with the preservation of both the ability to identify them by sight correctly and to name them when they are presented in another sensory modality. This syndrome was first described by Freund in 1889, but since then its existence has been continually questioned. When it is accepted, the most common interpretation of it is in terms of an anatomical visuo-verbal disconnection. However, the precise level of the psychological process impaired remains unspecified. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, evidence is reported showing that a verbal impairment specific to visually presented objects can be observed, as well as analogous syndromes (e.g. tactile aphasia). Secondly, a particular kind of visuo-verbal impairment is defined and called optic aphasia, to distinguish it from other possible cases of visuo-verbal impairments. This syndrome is defined by the specification of the level of the particular psychological process supposed to be impaired, i.e. a disturbance between visual semantics and verbal semantics, both of which operate normally. Thirdly, three hypotheses concerning the operation of the semantic system in normal subjects are derived from the evidence coming from this syndrome.

3. Visual anomia: a unidirectional disconnection. McCormick GF, Levine DA. Neurology. 1983 May;33(5):664-6.

A right-handed patient with a complete right homonymous hemianopia could not name objects seen in her left hemifield but could always select an object from an assortment when the object was named. If the right hemisphere was devoid of auditory language function, we must postulate separate transcallosal pathways from visual to verbal and from auditory language to visual information. Because only the former pathway was interrupted, our patient exhibited a « unidirectional » disconnection.

4. Neuropsychological demonstration of splenial interhemispheric disconnection in a case of « optic anomia ». Klaus Poeck. Neuropsychologia, Volume 22, Issue 6, 1984, Pages 707-713

A patient is described whose neuropsychological deficit corresponded to the notion of « optic aphasia » or, better, optic anomia. The functional deficit was undirectional, i.e. there was a severe impairment in the naming of visually presented stimuli without impairment in the comprehension of the corresponding names. The splenial disconnection was demonstrated by intact cross modal matching within the right hemisphere as well as preserved left-handed tactile naming, which is processed via mid-callosal pathways. The psychological interpretation is discussed in terms of visual and tactile semantics, considering also the presumably diffuse cerebral organization of semantic fields.

5. Optic aphasia, optic apraxia, and loss of dreaming. Brain and Language, Volume 26, Issue 1, September 1985, Pages 63-71 Jordi Peña-Casanova, Teresa Roig-Rovira, Amalia Bermudez and Eduard Tolosa-Sarro

A 47-year-old man with a left temporo-occipital infarct in the area of the posterior cerebral artery is presented. The neuropsychological examination did not reveal aphasia or gross mental deficits. The patient presented with alexia without agraphia, color agnosia, but few visual perceptual deficits. The main impairment was in confrontation naming; he was incapable of naming objects and pictures, not from lack of recognition (excluding visual agnosia) but from lack of access to the appropriate word (optic aphasia). The patient also exhibited a deficit in the evocation of gesture from the visual presentation of an object (optic apraxia) and a dífficulty in « conjuring up » visual images of objects (impaired visual imagery) and loss of dreams. The fundamental deficit of this patient is tentatively explained in terms of visuoverbal and visuogestural disconnection and a deficit of mental imagery.

6. Disconnexion visuo-verbale (aphasie optique) pour les objets les images, les couleurs et les visages avec alexie « abstractive ». Neuropsychologia, Volume 23, Issue 3, 1985, Pages 333-349 R. Gil, C. Pluchon, G. Toullat, D. Micheneau, R. Rogez and J. P. Lefevre

Une malade atteinte d’un infarctus occipital gauche présente un trouble de la dénomination des objects présentés visuellements sans qu’il n’existe ni aphasie ni perturbations des traitements perceptif et associatif des informations visuelles. Cette disconnexion visuo-verbale s’accompagne de perturbations de la fonction sémantique dès lors qu’elle est sollicitée par le canal visuel. Il existe en outre une alexie dont les caractères sont essentiellement ceux d’un déficit de l’abstraction. La malade présente enfin un déficit de la dénomination des couleurs et des visages sans élément agnosique patent. Cette observation plaide pour le maintien de la distinction entre agnosie visuelle associative et aphasie optique; elle montre aussi que le déficit de la dénomination implique un déficit de l’extraction des valeurs sémantiques des informations visuelles (objects, signes graphiques).

7. Riddoch MJ, Humphreys GW. Visual object processing in optic aphasia: a case of semantic access agnosia. Cognitive Neuropsychology 1987; 4: 131-185.

8. Preserved object recognition and reading comprehension in optic aphasia. Coslett HB, Saffran EM. Brain. 1989 Aug;112 ( Pt 4):1091-110.

Optic aphasia is characterized by the ability to name from description and palpation but an inability to name visually-presented objects. Although originally attributed to a disconnection of visual information from object names, optic aphasia is often considered to be a mild form of visual agnosia. We describe a patient with optic aphasia who could access semantic information relevant to objects he could not name and comprehend written words he could not read. These data suggest that, at least in certain cases, this visual modality-specific naming impairment may not be attributable to impaired visual recognition. We suggest that this patient’s preserved object recognition and reading comprehension was mediated by a semantic system supported by the right hemisphere.

9. Visual associative agnosia and optic aphasia. A single case study and a review of the syndromes. Iorio L, Falanga A, Fragassi NA, Grossi D. Cortex. 1992 Mar;28(1):23-37.

The case is presented of a patient who showed visual naming disturbances caused by a left occipital infarction. His performance on tests of visual naming, of recognition not requiring a verbal response, and of verbal-visual matching demonstrated a wide range of qualitatively different errors, including complete inability to recognize the object, access to partial semantic knowledge, and mere name finding difficulty. On the basis of the present case and of a review of the recent literature, the clinical distinction between visual associative agnosia and optic aphasia and the relation of these disorders with the anatomical site of lesion are discussed.

10. Optic aphasia and the right hemisphere: A replication and extension. Brain and Language, Volume 43, Issue 1, July 1992, Page
s 148-161 H. Branch Coslett and Eleanor M. Saffran.

Optic aphasia is a rare, visual modality-specific naming disorder. We describe a patient who developed this disorder subsequent to a left occipital lobe infarction. Like another case that we described previously, this patient performed normally on a variety of tasks assessing the recognition of objects he could not name. Additionally, although he never read aloud a single word, his performance on lexical decision and word comprehension tasks was far better than chance. We suggest that his performance was mediated by a right hemisphere semantic system.

11. Impaired drawing from memory in a visual agnosic patient. Brain and Cognition, Volume 20, Issue 2, November 1992, Pages 327-344. Luigi Trojano and Dario Grossi.

A case is reported of an associative visual agnosic patient who could not draw from memory objects he could recognize, even though he could copy drawings flawlessly. His ability to generate mental visual images was found to be spared, as was his ability to operate upon mental images. These data suggest that the patient could generate mental images but could not draw from memory because he did not have access to stored knowledge about pictorial attributes of objects. A similar functional impairment can be found in some other visual agnosic patients and in patients affected by optic aphasia. The present case allows a discussion of relationships among drawing from memory, imagery, and copying procedures.

12. Optic aphasia with spared action naming: A description and possible loci of impairment. SHORT COMMUNICATION. Neuropsychologia, Volume 30, Issue 6, June 1992, Pages 587-592 Lilianne Manning and Ruth Campbell

A brief functional description is given of an optic aphasic patient, A.G., who shows a pure and isolated deficit in naming visually presented objects on confrontation, but with sparing of visual action names. We show how some tasks related to imagery are compromised in this patient and speculate on possible functional site(s) of impairment in terms of the routes from perception to naming. We suggest why action naming may be spared in such cases.

13. Visual agnosia and optic aphasia: are they anatomically distinct? Schnider A, Benson DF, Scharre DW. Cortex. 1994 Sep;30(3):445-57.

A patient with left infero-medial occipital-temporal infarct suffered a visual agnosia that, by a minor change of the task, could be manipulated to optic aphasia. Tools in actual use and pantomimes of tool use were better named than stationary tools, a dissociation that suggests differences in the ability of stimuli to evoke associations over multiple modalities. Based on this case and analysis of previous reports we suggest that optic aphasia differs from visual agnosia primarily in the degree of callosal disconnection and that the preserved demonstration of tools use and semantic classification of optic aphasia reflect right hemisphere contribution to visual processing.

14. Optic Aphasia: A Case with Spared Action Naming and Associated Disorders. Brain and Language, Volume 53, Issue 2, May 1996, Pages 183-221 Ruth Campbell and Lilianne Manning

AG, a pure case of optic anomia (object naming impaired; action naming good) is described. We consider the fit of experimental data from AG to different theoretical accounts of optic aphasia. Overall, we find no evidence for impairments intrinsic to semantic representations, but we note a number of problems that we interpret as indicating a slight, and specific, weakness in semantic access from vision. We also note a mild problem in generating names to a cue (verbal fluency). The main aim of the report was to provide a full description of tests of visual, semantic, and speech output skills in this patient in relation to the processing of visually presented objects and scenes, within a sequential information processing account which enables some theoretical implications to be drawn, albeit not conclusively.

15. Modality specific naming and gesture disturbances: a case with optic aphasia, bilateral tactile aphasia, optic apraxia and tactile apraxia. Endo K, Makishita H, Yanagisawa N, Sugishita M. Cortex, 1996 Mar;32(1):3-28.

This study reports a patient who manifested optic aphasia, tactile aphasia, optic apraxia, and tactile apraxia following an operation for epidural left parietal haematoma. He could neither name nor pantomime the use of objects presented visually or tactually, but correctly performed semantic association tasks, thus demonstrating preserved recognition. He could name and pantomime the use of auditorily presented objects. Experimental results disproved that pantomime disorders were secondary to naming disorders, and suggested that modality specific aphasia and modality specific apraxia are independent clinical syndromes. CT scans showed injury to the posterior callosal radiations, the white matter of the angular gyrus, and the medial portion of the occipital lobe in the left hemisphere.
We suggest that modality specific aphasia and modality specific apraxia can be explained by assuming a common semantic memory store.

16. Optic aphasia: evidence of the contribution of different neural systems to object and action naming. Ferreira CT, Giusiano B, Ceccaldi M, Poncet M. Cortex. 1997 Sep;33(3):499-513

Visual stimulus naming was studied in a 66-year-old male patient with optic aphasia subsequent to left occipito-temporal infarction. While having difficulty in naming objects perceived visually, he was able to name objects by viewing gestures illustrating their use, and to name actions shown in pictures. These results suggest that naming performance depends on the kind of stimulus that is visually presented (object vs. action). The present findings lend support to congnitive models which postulate the existence of visual and functional semantic systems.

17. Associative agnosia and optic aphasia: qualitative or quantitative difference? De Renzi E, Saetti MC. Cortex. 1997 Mar;33(1):115-30

We report a patient who, following the partial removal of a tentorial meningioma, suffered a hematoma in the left occipital lobe, which was resected. He showed severe anomia for visually presented stimuli, while naming was normal when they were presented in the tactile, auditory and verbal modality. His performance on visuo-perceptual tests, not requiring meaning identification, provided evidence that he was able to access the stored representations of stimuli. When recognition was assessed with non-verbal tasks, a mixed pattern of findings emerged and the patient showed features of both associative agnosia and optic aphasia. He was severely impaired in producing pantomimes in response to pictures, but only marginally impaired in sorting figures from the same superordinate category into fine-grained subcategories. He performed within the normal range on an associative task, in which the distractors bore no semantic relation to the target, but made many errors when the distractors and the target were semantically related. We propose that the interpretation advanced by Coslett and Saffran (Brain, 1989) for optic aphasia also holds for associative agnosia and argue that both syndromes reflect the impaired access of structured representations to left hemisphere semantics, but differ in terms of the degree of compensation provided by the semantic resources of the right hemisphere. Since the anatomical basis of the two syndromes may be very similar, we submit that what makes the difference is the semantic potential of the patient’s right hemisphere.

18. The more you know the less you can tell: inhibitory effects of visuo-semantic activation on modality specific visual misnaming. Goldenberg G,
Karlbauer F. Cortex. 1998 Sep;34(4):471-91

WH, a 77-years old right-handed psychoanalyst, displayed modality specific visual misnaming as a sequel of an embolic stroke in the left posterior cerebral artery. WH’s errors in visual object naming consisted mainly of semantic paraphasias and perseverations. His verbalizations during testing sometimes manifested a conflict between correct responses and perseverations. Analysis of the stream of information from visual perception via semantics to phonology suggested incomplete access from vision to semantics as the source of errors. The disconnection did not affect verbo-visual matching, though he was unable to reject names that did not correspond to visual stimuli. Action naming was relatively spared, but naming of pictures of actions with objects was worse than naming of pictures of intransitive actions. Tactile naming worsened with simultaneous vision of objects. In visual object naming the error rate increased with increasing familiarity of objects. We propose that an interaction of excitation and inhibition within a single semantic system can explain the clinical phenomena of modality specific visual misnaming.

19. Optic aphasia with pure alexia: a mild form of visual associative agnosia? A case study. Chanoine V, Ferreira CT, Demonet JF, Nespoulous JL, Poncet M. Cortex. 1998 Jun;34(3):437-48.

A single-case study is reported of a naming disorder selective to the visual modality. The patient showed intact access to structural knowledge of objects and letters, but impaired access to complete semantic knowledge of objects and alphabetical knowledge of letters from visual input. The impairment was most striking when the patient had to discriminate between semantically similar objects or within a given symbolic repertoire, i.e. letters. The co-occurrence of a partial deficit of visual recognition for objects and for letters indicated features of optic aphasia and pure alexia. This symmetric performance between object and letter processing may also constitute a mild form of visual associative agnosia.

20. Optic aphasia: A single case study and review : Giuliano, A. J., Crouch, J. A., & Eckert, R. K. ABSTRACT. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, Volume 14, Issue 1, January 1999, Page 129

21. Superadditive Effects of Multiple Lesions in a Connectionist Architecture: Implications for the Neuropsychology of Optic Aphasia. Psychological Review, Volume 107, Issue 4, October 2000, Pages 709-734. Mark Sitton, Michael C. Mozer and Martha J. Farah

Neuropsychological disorders have traditionally been understood in terms of a focal lesion to a single component of a cognitive architecture. Optic aphasia (OA) defies explanation in this way. In OA, naming of visual stimuli is impaired in the absence of general visual agnosia or anomia. OA has been explained by positing multiple semantic systems or multiple functional pathways to visual naming. M. J. Farah (1990) instead sketched a parsimonious account based on multiple lesions—to pathways mapping visual input to semantics and semantics to naming responses—and the assumption that the effects of the lesions are superadditive. The authors demonstrate superadditive effects of damage in a connectionist architecture and model other phenomena associated with OA. Multiple lesions with superadditivity provide a novel class of explanations for neuropsychological deficits that previously seemed to imply the existence of highly specialized processing components.

Voir aussi:

22. Disorders of visual recognition. De Renzi E. Semin Neurol. 2000; 20(4):479-85.

Agnosias are disorders of recognition, specific to one sensory channel, that affect either the perceptual analysis of the stimulus or the recognition of its meaning. In the visual modality, objects, faces, and colors can be separately disrupted. Apperceptive object agnosia refers to failure to achieve a structured description of the shape of the object. Associative agnosia refers to inability to attribute a meaning to a correctly perceived stimulus. It must be differentiated from optic aphasia, in which the object is recognized but cannot be named in the visual modality. Associative agnosia and optic aphasia are associated with left occipitotemporal damage, and they differ more quantitatively than qualitatively. The inability to recognize familiar faces (prosopagnosia) can appear in isolation and be, in some cases, associated with a lesion confined to the occipitotemporal region of the right hemisphere. These findings are supportive of the idea that faces have a separate representation in the brain. Disorders of color cognition can affect color categorization, color-name association, and color-object association. They are linked to left hemisphere damage. The ability to recognize objects presented in the visual modality is a hierarchical process in which several cortical areas, corresponding to about 30% of the cortical mantle, participate. Their selective lesion results in a gamut of disorders whose identification provides the experienced neurologist with clues to the locus of damage and contributes to the understanding of the cognitive architecture underpinning recognition. They can result either in the inability to detect any change occurring in the visual field or in the impairment of further stages of the recognition process, from the analysis of the perceptual properties of the stimulus (form, color, motion, depth, etc.) to the achievement of its structural description and, eventually, the attribution of a meaning. In this paper, I focus on the diagnostic and clinical features characterizing the disruption of the last stage of visual information processing; that is, the failure to identify what a stimulus represents despite evidence that its three-dimensional structure has been properly reconstructed. In the literature, this impairment is traditionally referred to as associative agnosia, a psychological construct that attributes the deficit to the inability to associate a well-discriminated percept with its semantic attributes, which are stored in separate cortical areas. In the visual modality, three discrete forms of associative agnosia have been described, affecting objects, faces, and colors. These are treated separately.

23. Plaut, D. C. (2002). Graded modality-specific specialization in semantics: A computational account of optic aphasia. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 19(7), 603-639.

A longstanding debate regarding the representation of semantic knowledge is whether such knowledge is represented in a single, amodal system or whether it is organized into multiple subsystems based on modality of input or type of information. The current paper presents a distributed connectionist model of semantics that constitutes a middle ground between these unitary- versus multiple-semantics accounts. In the model, semantic representations develop under the pressure of learning to mediate between multiple input and output modalities in performing various tasks. The system has a topographic bias on learning that favors short connections, leading to a graded degree of modality-specific functional specialization within semantics. The model is applied to the specific empirical phenomena of optic aphasia, a neuropsychological disorder in which patients exhibit a selective deficit in naming visually presented objects that is not attributable to more generalized impairments in object recognition (visual agnosia) or naming (a
nomia). As a result of the topographic bias in the model, as well as the relative degrees of systematicity among tasks, damage to connections from vision to regions of semantics near phonology impairs visual object naming far more than visual gesturing or tactile naming, as observed in optic aphasia. Moreover, as in optic aphasia, the system is better at generating the name of an action associated with an object than at generating the name of the object itself, because action naming receives interactive support from the activation of action representations. The ability of the model to account for the pattern of performance observed in optic aphasia across the full range of severity of impairment provides support for the claim that semantic representations exhibit graded functional specialization rather than being entirely amodal or modality-specific.

24. Plaut (thèse, chap. 8). Visual object naming in optic aphasia:

26. Livre.
M.J. Riddoch, Optic Aphasia: A Review of Some Classic Cases. In: Case Studies in the Neuropsychology of Vision. Edited by: Glyn W. Humphreys. Publisher: Psychology Press, ISBN: 0863778968, Pub Date:
08 FEB 2001.

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